Erlangen Stroke Project – ESPro

The Erlangen Stroke Registry (ESPro) is an ongoing population-based patient registry focusing on stroke and vascular dementia. ESPro is providing population-based representative data on epidemiology, course of disease, population-based health care delivery as well as on health economics.

Founded in 1994 ESPro is the oldest and with 8.200 included cases and about 1.500 yearly follow-up visits the largest stroke patient registry in Germany. ESPro is providing population-based representative data on epidemiology (incidence, time-trends and long-term survival) [1-4], on the lomg-term course of disease (risk-factors, cognitive function, recurrence, complications) [5-13], population-based health care delivery [14-17], as well as data on health economics (patterns of care, resource utilization, cost of illness) [18-23].
ESPro is part of the National Information System of the Federal Health Monitoring (Gesundheitsberichterstattung des Bundes) and is funded by the Federal German Government.




  1. Kolominsky-Rabas, P.L., Sarti, C., Heuschmann, P.U., Graf, C., Siemonsen, S., Neundoerfer, B., Katalinic, A., Lang, E., Gassmann, K.G. and von Stockert, T.R., A prospective community-based study of stroke in Germany – the Erlangen Stroke Project (ESPro): incidence and case fatality at 1, 3, and 12 months. Stroke, 1998. 29(12): p. 2501-6.
  2. Wolfe, C.D., Giroud, M., Kolominsky-Rabas, P., Dundas, R., Lemesle, M., Heuschmann, P. and Rudd, A., Variations in stroke incidence and survival in 3 areas of Europe. European Registries of Stroke (EROS) Collaboration. Stroke, 2000. 31(9): p. 2074-9.
  3. Kolominsky-Rabas, P.L. and Heuschmann, P.U., Incidence, etiology and long-term prognosis of stroke. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr, 2002. 70(12): p. 657-62.
  4. Kolominsky-Rabas, P.L., Wiedmann, S., Weingartner, M., Liman, T.G., Endres, M., Schwab, S., Buchfelder, M. and Heuschmann, P.U., Time trends in incidence of pathological and etiological stroke subtypes during 16 years: the Erlangen Stroke Project. Neuroepidemiology, 2015. 44(1): p. 24-9.
  5. Heuschmann, P.U., Neureiter, D., Gesslein, M., Craiovan, B., Maass, M., Faller, G., Beck, G., Neundoerfer, B. and Kolominsky-Rabas, P.L., Association between infection with Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae and risk of ischemic stroke subtypes: Results from a population-based case-control study. Stroke, 2001. 32(10): p. 2253-8.
  6. Kolominsky-Rabas, P.L., Weber, M., Gefeller, O., Neundoerfer, B. and Heuschmann, P.U., Epidemiology of ischemic stroke subtypes according to TOAST criteria: incidence, recurrence, and long-term survival in ischemic stroke subtypes: a population-based study. Stroke, 2001. 32(12): p. 2735-40.
  7. Kolominsky-Rabas, P.L., Hilz, M.J., Neundoerfer, B. and Heuschmann, P.U., Impact of urinary incontinence after stroke: results from a prospective population-based stroke register. Neurourol Urodyn, 2003. 22(4): p. 322-7.
  8. Schmieder, R.E., Schmidt, B.M., Raff, U., Bramlage, P., Dorfler, A., Achenbach, S., Schwab, J. and Kolominsky-Rabas, P., Cerebral microangiopathy in treatment-resistant hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich), 2011. 13(8): p. 582-7.
  9. Liman, T.G., Heuschmann, P.U., Endres, M., Floel, A., Schwab, S. and Kolominsky-Rabas, P.L., Changes in cognitive function over 3 years after first-ever stroke and predictors of cognitive impairment and long-term cognitive stability: the Erlangen Stroke Project. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord, 2011. 31(4): p. 291-9.
  10. Mohan, K.M., Wolfe, C.D., Rudd, A.G., Heuschmann, P.U., Kolominsky-Rabas, P.L. and Grieve, A.P., Risk and cumulative risk of stroke recurrence: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Stroke, 2011. 42(5): p. 1489-94.
  11. Liman, T.G., Heuschmann, P.U., Endres, M., Floel, A., Schwab, S. and Kolominsky-Rabas, P.L., Impact of low mini-mental status on health outcome up to 5 years after stroke: the Erlangen Stroke Project. J Neurol, 2012. 259(6): p. 1125-30.
  12. Jungehulsing, G.J., Heuschmann, P.U., Holtkamp, M., Schwab, S. and Kolominsky-Rabas, P.L., Incidence and predictors of post-stroke epilepsy. Acta Neurol Scand, 2013. 127(6): p. 427-30.
  13. Koehn, J., Crodel, C., Deutsch, M., Kolominsky-Rabas, P.L., Hosl, K.M., Kohrmann, M., Schwab, S. and Hilz, M.J., Erectile dysfunction (ED) after ischemic stroke: association between prevalence and site of lesion. Clin Auton Res, 2015. 25(6): p. 357-65.
  14. Heuschmann, P.U., Berger, K., Misselwitz, B., Hermanek, P., Leffmann, C., Adelmann, M., Buecker-Nott, H.J., Rother, J., Neundoerfer, B. and Kolominsky-Rabas, P.L., Frequency of thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke and the risk of in-hospital mortality: the German Stroke Registers Study Group. Stroke, 2003. 34(5): p. 1106-13.
  15. Bhalla, A., Tilling, K., Kolominsky-Rabas, P., Heuschmann, P., Megherbi, S.E., Czlonkowska, A., Kobayashi, A., Mendel, T., Giroud, M., Rudd, A. and Wolfe, C., Variation in the management of acute physiological parameters after ischaemic stroke: a European perspective. Eur J Neurol, 2003. 10(1): p. 25-33.
  16. Heuschmann, P.U., Kolominsky-Rabas, P.L., Roether, J., Misselwitz, B., Lowitzsch, K., Heidrich, J., Hermanek, P., Leffmann, C., Sitzer, M., Biegler, M., Buecker-Nott, H.J. and Berger, K., Predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with thrombolytic therapy. Jama, 2004. 292(15): p. 1831-8.
  17. Heuschmann, P.U., Kolominsky-Rabas, P.L., Misselwitz, B., Hermanek, P., Leffmann, C., Janzen, R.W., Rother, J., Buecker-Nott, H.J. and Berger, K., Predictors of in-hospital mortality and attributable risks of death after ischemic stroke: the German Stroke Registers Study Group. Arch Intern Med, 2004. 164(16): p. 1761-8.

  18. Ward, A., Payne, K.A., Caro, J.J., Heuschmann, P.U. and Kolominsky-Rabas, P.L., Care needs and economic consequences after acute ischemic stroke: the Erlangen Stroke Project. Eur J Neurol, 2005. 12(4): p. 264-7.
  19. Kolominsky-Rabas, P.L., Heuschmann, P.U., Marschall, D., Emmert, M., Baltzer, N., Neundorfer, B., Schoffski, O. and Krobot, K.J., Lifetime cost of ischemic stroke in Germany: results and national projections from a population-based stroke registry: the Erlangen Stroke Project. Stroke, 2006. 37(5): p. 1179-83.
  20. Dietl, M., Pohle, R., Weingartner, M., Polgar, R., Grassel, E., Schwab, S. and Kolominsky-Rabas, P., Stroke etiology and long-term need of care in ischemic stroke patients. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr, 2009. 77(12): p. 714-9.
  21. Schaller, S., Mauskopf, J., Kriza, C., Wahlster, P. and Kolominsky-Rabas, P.L., The main cost drivers in dementia: a systematic review. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, 2015. 30(2): p. 111-29.
  22. Schaller, S.U., Marinova-Schmidt, V., Gobin, J., Luttenberger, K., Richter-Schmidinger, T., Gräßel, E., Maler, J.M., Kornhuber, J. and Kolominsky-Rabas, P.L., The Health Economic Impact of Resource use in Dementia: the Erlanger Dementia Registry (EDR). Value Health, 2014. 17(7): p. A465.
  23. Schaller, S., Marinova-Schmidt, V., Setzer, M., Schnetzer, I.M., Thron, C., Popp, S., Hösl, K., Massicot, G., Gaßmann, K.G., Behrndt, E.M., Gräßel, E. and Kolominsky-Rabas, P., Bayerischer Demenz Survey: Methodik einer Längsschnitterhebung zur Versorgungssituation bei Demenz. Gesundheitswesen, 2015; 77 (08/09): A:370. Available from:, [Accessed 4th January 2017].
  24. Kolominsky, P.L., Datenbank Versorgungsforschung Deutschland, BayDem – Bayerischer Demenz Survey. 2016. Available from: [Accessed: 4th January 2017].